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The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres (62 mi) southwest of Bogotá.These sites date from the Paleoindian period (18,000–8000 BCE).In 1863 the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before finally adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886.
Ecologically, it is one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer.).
It was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish and Portuguese rule.
The name was later adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada (modern-day Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador, and northwest Brazil).
Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different.
Some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes.
At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period (~8000–2000 BCE) have been found.